Around the beginning of July 2016, there were a series of overdoses and deaths in Akron Ohio. The ABC News affiliate in Cleveland reported there had been 173 overdoses in Akron by July 22; 16 of which were fatal. Some of the first people to overdose had not shot up—they were snorting what they thought was heroin. “As soon as I sniffed it, I knew something was up because it got me feeling super intense,” he said. When I woke up, I was on a stretcher. I was freaking out because I didn’t know what happened. I was tied down.”
The overdoses are being attributed to a street mixture of heroin and carfentanil, an opioid considered to be 4,000 times as potent as heroin. There were some misleading news reports at the time suggesting that heroin users themselves were mixing heroin and carfentanil (carfentanyl). Reporting for Cincinnati.com, Terry DeMio said that the Hamilton County Heroin Coalition warned carfentanil had been found in the local heroin of Cincinnati, Akron and Columbus. Dr. Marc Fishman said: “Carfentanil is one of the most potent opioids known, as an anesthetic agent by veterinarians for large animals, not used for humans.” Veterinarians who are licensed to use it cover up hands, arms and faces when they use it … and they keep naloxone handy.
Then the overdoses started happening again in the Cincinnati area. The Washington Post reported there were 78 overdoses and at least three deaths during a 48-hour period. By the end of the week, the overdose total has reached 174. Some of the overdose victims required multiple doses of naloxone to reverse the effects. Although they are still awaiting the lab results, the police believe this is another batch of heroin mixed with carfentanil. So far law enforcement has not been able to identify the source of the mixture. Newtown Police Chief Tom Synan said:
These people are intentionally putting in drugs they know can kill someone. . . . The benefit for them is if the user survives, it is such a powerful high for them, they tend to come back. … If one or two people die, they could care less. They know the supply is so big right now that if you lose some customers, in their eyes, there’s always more in line.
WKRC in Cincinnati reported thirty overdoses in the course of just one day—Tuesday August 23rd. One man overdosed while driving through an intersection. Another man overdosed at a gas station; with his child in the car. Three other people overdosed in the same house. “It was too early to tell if the spike in overdoses Tuesday night, August 23, had anything to do with carfentanil. But, it was found in several places throughout the city of Cincinnati in early August 2016.”
So what exactly is carfentanil? According to PubChem, carfentanil is an analog drug of fentanyl that was first synthesized in 1974 by a team of chemists working for Janssen Pharmaceuticals. It’s marketed under the trade name of Wildnil as a general anesthetic for large animals, like elephants and rhinoceros. Its extreme potency makes it an inappropriate agent for human use, unless you happen to be a Walter White-type of entrepreneur with heroin. It is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance.
A 2012 study found evidence that the Russian military used an aerosol form of carfentanil and remifentil in the 2002 Moscow theatre incident to subdue Chechen hostage takers. The Washington Post reported the death toll was 170 people; only 40 of the dead were attackers. Because of the lack of information provided to emergency workers, they didn’t bring enough naloxone or naltrexone to prevent the complications experienced by the gassed victims “from both respiratory failure and aerosol inhalation during the incident.” A 10 mg dose of carfentanil could sedate or kill a 15,000-pound elephant or take down a musk ox, bull moose or full grown buffalo. The same amount could kill 500 human beings.
Heroin cut with carfentanil offers a harder-hitting, longer-lasting high and allows dealers a shortcut to increase their supplies. But users often don’t know what they’re getting. In recent months, authorities have linked carfentanil to a spike in overdoses in several states, and have warned that it could spread to others.
On August 9, 2016 Canadian border officials reported they had intercepted a one-kilogram package of carfentanil heading to Calgary from China. The package was shipped to a 24 year-old man at his home address and labeled as “printer accessories.” A kilogram of carfentanil is equivalent to four metric tons of pure heroin. The package could have produced 50 million doses. Roslyn MacVicar of the Canadian Border Services Agency said: “It is hard to imagine what the impact could have been if even the smallest amounts of this drug were to have made its way to the street.”
In a DEA report Donald Cooper presciently thought that analogs of fentanyl would become a future drug of abuse He indicated that the already published synthesis schemes for fentanyl compounds allow for a variety of precursor chemicals to be used in synthesizing the drugs. The DEA became aware of this potentiality from the confiscated notes from an anonymous clandestine laboratory. Two formulas for synthesizing carfentanil have been extracted from separate volumes of the Journal of Organic Chemistry and made available for any enterprising chemist in “Synthesis of Carfentanil” on Erowid. The DEA indicated that over 12 different analogues of fentanyl have been clandestinely produced and identified in the U.S. drug traffic.
Interviewed by CBS News, Kevin McCutheon of Akron Ohio is a long-time addict. He believes when he overdosed he ingested carfentanil. He said he had used fentanyl and has been “doin’ dope,” but this wasn’t the same. The interviewer commented that he had tears in his eyes. He said it was because he was here and knew he shouldn’t be. “It’s the devil.”